Measures the prevalence of positive and negative syndromes in schizophrenia.


Depressed mood

1. Gloomy attitude, pessimism about the future, feeling of sadness, tendency to weep

2. Feelings of guilt

3. Suicide

Initial insomnia

4. Difficulty falling asleep

Insomnia during the night

5. Restless, disturbed, waking at night

Delayed insomnia

6. Exaggerated self-opinion and unrealistic convictions of Waking in early hours of the morning and unable to fall asleep again

Work and interests

7. Absence from work after treatment or recovery may rate ≤4


8. Slowness of thought, speech, and activity; apathy; stupor


9. Restlessness associated with anxiety

10. Psychiatric anxiety

Somatic anxiety

11. Gastrointestinal, indigestion, cardiovascular, palpitations, headaches, respiratory, genitourinary, etc.

Gastrointestinal somatic symptoms

12. Loss of appetite, heavy feeling in abdomen, constipation

General somatic symptoms

13. Heaviness in limbs, back, or head; diffuse backache; loss of energy and fatigability

Genital symptoms

14. Loss of libido, menstrual disturbances

15. Hypochondriasis

16. Weight loss


17. Must be interpreted in terms of patient’s understanding and backgroun

18. Diurnal Variation

19. Depersonalization and Derealization Feelings of unreality, nihilistic ideas

20. Paranoid Symptoms

21. Obsessional and Compulsive Symptoms



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HAM-D Score Grade
0-7 Normal
8-13 Mild depression
14-18 Moderate depression
19-22 Severe depression
≥23 Very severe depression